Today you will perform a series of experiments that
demonstrate Newton's laws of motion.

Equipment needed:
- Tennis ball
- Force sensors
- Clamp and rod

Open a Microsoft Word document to keep a log of your
experimental procedures and your results. This log will form the basis of
your studio session report. Address the points highlighted in blue.
Answer all questions.

"When viewed in an inertial reference frame, an object
at rest remains at rest and an object in motion continues in motion with **constant
velocity** unless it is acted on by an external
net force."

Assume that you sitting in your stopped car with your
seatbelt fastened waiting for a green light. Another car suddenly hits
your car from behind. After recovering from the surprise, you notice a
pain in your head and neck.

- Discuss with your partners what you think happens to
the head of a buckled-up driver when the car is hit from behind.

Now assume you are a passenger in a moving car and this car hits the back of a stopped car.

- Discuss what you think happens to the head of a
buckled-up passenger in a moving car when the car hits a stopped car.

**Experiment 1**

Place a ball on a book that you hold out in front of you
like a tray with one hand. Record what happens to the ball when you conduct the
following three experiments.

- From rest, walk quickly forward.
- From rest, walk quickly backwards.
- Walk forward at a steady pace, keeping the ball on the
book with your other hand. Let go of the ball while walking steadily.
Then stop suddenly.

Are your observations consistent with Newton's first law? Discuss!

Reconsider the situation where a stopped car is hit from behind by a moving car.

- Using Newton's First Law, predict what should happen to the head of the
buckled-up driver in the stopped car. Where should the brain trauma
occur in this type of accident?
- Using Newton's First Law, predict what should happen to the head of the
buckled-up passenger in the moving car. Where should the brain trauma
occur in this type of accident?

**Experiment 2**

Step through 4 video clips frame by frame. The clips
show a cart on a track. An
acceleration sensor
and a force sensor are
attached to the cart. A force is applied to the force sensor by a falling
weight, and the computer screen displays the output of the force and
acceleration sensors as the cart accelerates. The pulling force measured
by the force sensor is approximately equal to the net force acting on the
cart.

Open Microsoft Excel and record the average
readings of the force and acceleration sensors in a table.

Produce a graph of force versus acceleration.

Give the graph a title and label the axes.

The label for the x-axis should be "a
(m/s^{2})", and the label for the y-axis should be "F
(N)".

Paste your graph into your log. Refer to your graph and describe the relationship between force and acceleration
using words.

Right-click your data and choose "Add Trendline". Choose "Type, Linear" and "Options, Display equation on
chart". An equation y = ax + b will appear on your graph, where the
number a is the slope and the number b is the y-intercept. What is
the physical meaning of the slope?

Write down Newton’s 2^{nd}
law in the form of an equation. Define any variables and/or constants.
What is your best estimate for the mass of the cart and the sensors in the video
clips?

**Activity**

An elevator ride

The acceleration of the old elevator in the Nielsen Physics Building was
measured as it traveled from the second to the sixth floor, starting from rest.
The data were taken using the acceleration sensor in a cell phone.

Open the linked Excel
Spreadsheet.

- Produce a Graph of acceleration versus time.
The phone recorded a data point every 0.15 s.

Paste this graph into your log.
- Use ∆v = a*∆t to find the velocity of the elevator
as a function of time.

Into cell C3 type "=C2+B2*0.15". Copy the formula into the
other cells of column C.
- Use ∆y = v*∆t to find the position of the elevator
as a function of time.

Into cell D3 type "=D2+C2*0.15". Copy the formula into the
other cells of column D.
- Produce a graph of velocity versus time and a graph
of position versus time. Paste these graphs into your log.

Discuss with your partners what these graphs tell you.
Explain in detail how to relate the information in the graphs to a ride
in an elevator.

Convert your log into a session report, certify with you signature that
you have actively participated, and hand it to your instructor.